Fluoride as a Developmental Neurotoxin

Grandjean, P. et al., “Neurobehavioural Effects of Developmental Toxicity,” The Lancet Neurology , Volume 13 , Issue 3 , 330 – 338 (March 2014). 

Choi, et al., “Developmental Fluoride Neurotoxicity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(10): 1362-1368 (2012). 

Mundy, W., et al., “Building a Database of Developmental Neurotoxicants: Evidence from Human and Animal Studies,” available at and

“Impact of Fluoride on Neurological Development in Children,” available at

Fluoride, Dental Fluorosis and IQ

NHANES data, summarized in correspondence from Nadine Gracia, Office of the Asst. Secretary for Health, HHS, to Dora Hughes, HHS, April 27, 2011., p. 65-66.

Beltrán-Aguilar E.D., et al., “Surveillance for Dental Caries, Dental Sealants, Tooth Retention, Edentulism, and Enamel Fluorosis-United States, 1988–1994 and 1999-2002” MMWR 54(03);1-44, Table 23 (August 26, 2005). 

Choi, et al., “Association of lifetime exposure to fluoride and cognitive functions in Chinese children: A pilot study,” Neurotoxicology and Teratology 47: 96-101 (January-February 2015). 

Prevalence and Severity of Dental Fluorosis in the United States, 1999-2004

Fluoride and the Thyroid Gland

National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards, at p. 262 (The National Academies Press 2006).

Peckham S, et al., “Are fluoride levels in drinking water associated with hypothyroidism prevalence in England?  "GP practice data and fluoride levels in drinking water" J. Epidemiol Community Health 0:1–6 (2015).

Fluoride and the Prevention of Tooth Decay

Water fluoridation to prevent tooth decay | Cochrane

Centers for Disease Control, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), “Recommendations for Using Fluoride to Prevent and Control Dental Caries in the United States” 50(RR14);1-42 (August 17, 2001).

DHHS Statement on the safety of ingesting fluoride:

Fluoride and ADHD

Environmental Health | Abstract | Exposure to fluoridated water and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States: an ecological association